There’s A Style Guide for That

Authors who specialize in one field of knowledge are sometimes unaware of style guides used in other areas.

In writing for DWT, I mostly rely on these three style guides:

The Chicago Manual of Style
The AP Stylebook
Penguin Writer’s Manual

Chicago is directed at a broad audience that includes both scholars and entrepreneurs. AP is targeted specifically to journalists. CMOS and AP recommendations don’t often differ, but when they do, the differences sometimes reflect an interesting divide between scholarly and popular usage.

I trust the Penguin reference guides to point me to differences between American and British usage.

When wearing my academic hat, I regard the MLA Handbook (published by the Modern Language Association) as my style bible.

These are my preferred guides because I write chiefly about standard usage and literature. Not all disciplines process and present information in exactly the same way. Authors who write about other subjects–sociology, science, and mathematics, for example–look to other guides. Here’s a sampling of instructions in authors’ guidelines for just four specialized journals, each recommending different guides:

Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Manuscripts that do not conform to APA guidelines…may be rejected without review.

Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
References must conform to the format printed in the journal and must include titles. The article should conform to the usual ACS format.

Sociological Theory
In general, please refer to the ASA Style Guide (4th edition) for style and formatting guidelines. Manuscripts that do not conform to the desired format will be returned to the author for rectification.

Amyloid: Journal of Protein Folding Disorders
[This journal] conforms to the CSE style guidelines, using the NLM style for references.

What the initials mean:

APA: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association and is generally used for writing about research in psychology, education, and social sciences.

ACS: The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information
Published by the American Chemical Society, ACS style is followed by writers and reviewers of scientific manuscripts.

ASA: American Sociological Association Style Guide
Similar to APA, ASA is also used by writers about sociology and related fields.

CSE: Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers
Developed by the Council of Science Editors (CSE), this guide is used by writers in all areas of the sciences.

NLM: Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers
This guide is published by the National Library of Medicine to provide instructions and examples for formatting citations of published and unpublished material, both printed and digital.

Other guides for other areas of specialization also exist. Of the guides mentioned here, MLA and APA are probably the best known because high school students and college undergraduates are most likely to be required to use one of them for their research papers. I’ll discuss the differences between them in another post.

Related: 5 Online Style Guides

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Daily Writing Tips

Talking about Age in the Media

Everyone wants to live longer, but no one wants to be old. –Harry Moody, director of academic affairs for AARP (2012).

To me – old age is always ten years older than I am. –Bernard Baruch, American financier (1870-1965).

About forty-two million Americans are 65 years or older. Advertisers, politicians, and researchers often need to refer to this group, but finding a term that will not insult its members is not easy.

Various terms have been suggested with varying degrees of success. Elder, elderly, senior, and retiree are the most common.

In Canada, according to what I’ve read in forums, the term elder has connotations of venerable age and wisdom; in the United States, however, people tend to associate elder with disapproving church elders or the word elderly. The decline of the acceptability of the word elder is illustrated by the name change of a travel organization established in 1975 for active Americans 60 and older. The parent organization is still called Elderhostel, but in advertising, the program is now known agelessly as “Road Scholar.”

Even the word retiree is heavy with the connotations of age. These days, the American Association of Retired People (founded 1958) goes by its initials only: AARP.

When politicians talk about “our seniors” in the same breath as “our children,” mature adults understandably bristle.

An article in The Senior Times says that the term “senior citizen” was coined in 1938 during a political campaign. Its use soars on the Ngram Viewer beginning in the 1940s. According to National Public Radio reporter Ina Jaffe, “senior citizen” is a term that “seems to annoy just about everyone.”

Recognizing the minefield of age and terms relating to it, The AP Stylebook has this entry for the word elderly:

Use this word carefully and sparingly. Do not refer to a person as elderly unless it is clearly relevant to the story. It is appropriate in generic phrases that do not refer to specific individuals: concern for the elderly, a home for the elderly, etc.

If the intent is to show that an individual’s faculties have deteriorated, cite a graphic example and give attribution for it. Use age when available and appropriate.

Apply the same principle to terms such as senior citizen.

Age is one of the realities of life that our culture prefers to deny. It’s unlikely that any term can be found to refer to old people that would not be offensive to someone because in our culture, old age itself is seen as offensive.

Perhaps the safest course is to refer to the intended age group in numeric terms:
between the ages of 65 and 75
above the age of 65
septuagenarian
octogenarian
nonagenarian
centenarian

Colloquial synonyms for “old person” range from friendly to deliberately hurtful, for example:
old-timer
oldster
codger
dotard
crone
coot

Although the word codger (like coot) usually has a negative connotation, this review about Dick Van Dyke in the Chicago Tribune (1992) makes a kind of compliment of it:

The wonderfully funny Dick Van Dyke, insufficiently honored in his prime, has now passed into the lovable-old-codger stage.

His comic gifts are sharper than ever, and he still dances with grace, style and a naughty insouciance. He is much too good for the quirky-old-coot roles that are his lot nowadays.

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Daily Writing Tips

Citing Daily Writing Tips

It is a source of satisfaction to me that the articles on the Daily Writing Tips site are often cited in bibliographies. Because the articles are accessed long after their original publication dates, I’m extremely grateful when readers browsing past articles call my attention to typos in any of the archived posts, so they may be corrected.

Occasionally, a student will ask me how to cite one of our articles. This is the format I’ve been recommending, based on my copy of the MLA Handbook (6th edition):

Maddox, Maeve. “When Words Collide.” DailyWritingTips.com/. 24 May 2011. Accessed January 3, 2013 – http://www.dailywritingtips.com/when-words-collide/

Nichol, Mark. “20 Types and Forms of Humor.” DailyWritingTips.com/. 24 November 2011. Accessed 25 July 2014 – http://www.dailywritingtips.com/20-types-and-forms-of-humor/

Since the publication of the 6th edition of the Handbook, MLA has lifted the necessity to include the URL. The reasoning is that Web addresses are not static, and documents sometimes appear in multiple locations. Thanks to Internet Search Engines, most readers can find electronic sources by means of title or author searches. An entry without the URL would look like this:

Maddox, Maeve. “When Words Collide.” DailyWritingTips.com/. 24 May 2011. Accessed January 3, 2013.

Note: Some instructors or editors still ask that the URL be included.

The “access date” is the date that the reader found the article on the Web. Because URLs change and documents vanish, the researcher would be wise to print the article or save it as a Web page.

Dates of publication do not appear with the individual DWT posts, but they can be found in the Archives. A quick way to find the date of the article you want is to go to the Archives page and type one or two of the words in the title in the browser “Find” feature.

For example, if you want to find the date of the article titled “Let the Word Do the Work,” click on the word Archives in the DWT menu at the top of the page. Then, under Edit in the browser, click on Find. In the box that appears, type the words “let the word.” Scroll down the page until you find the highlighted words in the title. This particular article appears under the date “May 2007”:

May 2007
31: Contractions
31: Audience is Everything
30: Let the Word Do the Work

The number in front of the title is the date of publication.

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Daily Writing Tips

The Dos and Don’ts of Niche One Way Links Building

The Dos and Don’ts of Niche One Way Links Developing

A niche 1 way website link is a website link that is positioned in a internet site or a blog site in your market and that does not call for reciprocating. Specialized niche a single way links are very well-liked in the planet of search motor optimization or Search engine optimisation due to the fact they are cheap, they do not demand reciprocating, they improve one’s rating and consequently visibility, they entice a focused World wide web targeted traffic, and they deliver you out as an skilled in your area of interest. If you want to create niche one way links, it is critical that you take into account the various options accessible. You ought to go for the approach that very best satisfies your certain wants. You could also go for distinct choices to get the most out of link constructing. It is critical that you know the dos and don’ts of market a single way links building as this will support you get an efficient Seo marketing campaign.

You could publish content articles and place them in write-up directories this kind of as EzineArticles.com and ArticleBase.com. Incorporate a url to your website in the source box at the end of every report. Yet an additional alternative is url exchanges. Basically uncover a website or a blog in your area of interest and make a ask for for a website link trade. You could build a single way backlinks by publishing your site to directory submission websites. One more common solution in specialized niche one way links building is posting comments in blogs. Simply discover a well-liked weblog in your area of interest and post a remark with a url to your site on it. If another reader finds your remark useful, he/she is very likely to go to your web site for more details. But one more option is social bookmarking. Free social bookmarking web sites these kinds of as StumbleUpon, Digg, and Technorati are really well-liked right now. All you require is to mail exciting articles and news with a url to your site. Other alternatives are employing website link wheels and submitting fascinating information and articles to social networking websites such as Digg, Technorati, and StumbleUpon, which are popular with World wide web end users.

You really should seek the services of a professional for market one way links building. Pros bring expertise to the table because they have the essential training, expertise, resources such as checking equipment, and contacts these kinds of as with credible blog sites. Using the services of a pro provides you unparalleled usefulness, allowing you to concentrate on operating your company. You must use specialized niche 1 way links building together with other White Hat Search engine optimisation methods this kind of as blog evaluation, DMOZ listing, specialized niche one way hyperlink developing, hyperlink baiting, press release distribution, discussion board evaluation, and Google indexing.

Avoid a single way links from scraper internet sites and you must only go to credible and reputable directories due to the fact scraper directories steal traffic and they use no-stick to tags and equivalent unhelpful techniques. Avoid mirror or repeated web sites considering that these are normally filtered out by Google and other search engines. Stay away from hyperlinks from website link farms due to the fact Google considers this to be Black Hat Search engine marketing and it could even direct to the banning of your internet site. Steer clear of software package-produced hyperlinks and script-generated links. Avoid links from sites that are appeared down on such as illegal internet sites and pornographic web sites. Other backlinks to keep away from when carrying out niche 1 way links building are reciprocal hyperlinks, footer/sidebar links, numerous back links from 1 internet site or back links that have the same text, and you ought to not listing on website link pages.

Johnston Hansen is the creator of this article on Specialized niche One Way Back links. Uncover more info, about Specialized niche One particular Way Back links right here.

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Related Back links Developing Posts

How to Establish Backlinks

How to Establish One way links

When starting up your individual site or website, obtaining a great search engine rating situation (SERP) is normally 1 of the principal ambitions. Obtaining a large SERP for relevant keywords is essential for the exposure you want to drive targeted traffic and site visitors to your content. When you see the variety of on the internet competitors, it is enough to overwhelm even the most identified webmaster. Nonetheless, if you prepare items out effectively, you can conquer even stiff competitiveness with a bit of energy. You can even do this with less posts and a considerably younger site.

The way to attain the leading spots in searches is through correctly specific quality content material and backlinks. You effectively target your posts and backlinks based on your niche’s related keywords and phrases. Relevant key phrases is a brief way of stating the terms and phrases that individuals will normally variety into research engines when they are looking for the type of content, products, and/or solutions that you offer.

Good quality material is an important essential. Your posts, content articles, movies, and other content material need to appeal to human readers. It is simple to modify properly-created characteristics to consist of appropriate search phrases for the research engines to see. Nevertheless, you will only travel away human viewers if you make inadequately written blogs, spammy product sales text, and other “junk” content material. It is crucial to make sure things are tuned appropriately for look for engines, but do not neglect it is human beings that open up their minds and wallets.

Constructing very good backlinks to good quality information is a single of the most efficient and surefire approaches to generate your site to the best of the SERPs. Good backlinks use your relevant key phrases as the anchor text. Anchor text is merely a world wide web hyperlink that is wrapped about a phrase or set of phrases, just link a internet site menu hyperlink.

Understanding in which to construct your backlinks is a key element. You must location your links by natural means in spots that have numerous website visitors and/or substantial lookup engine believe in. Trust is typically measured by PageRank, which is a evaluate of internet site authority by Google. Alexa Rank is the standard resource to evaluate visitor quantity.

Website backlinks are 1 of the most common and effective resources. Bloggers type a significant community and local community. You can consist of your site and one or two backlinks with a blog comment. Vehicle-approve blogs are regarded as extremely fascinating, simply because feedback are not screened and do not wait on a human currently being to approve them. Dofollow blogs are also significantly sought immediately after because backlinks from them count the most, as the search engines see the referring website as explicitly endorsing the links.

When leaving blog backlinks, be confident to include substantive remarks. Just spamming your back links almost everywhere will have you targeted by spam detection plans and depart a wake of annoyed blog homeowners. When making use of auto approve weblogs, be positive to check out the other back links current. You do not want your site showcased in a “poor community” with douleur enhancement and gambling spammers. Car-approve blogs make for simple and very good back links, if the remarks are not overfull and the other backlinks search excellent.

It can appear not possible when initial starting out to get to the leading of the research motor rankings. Nevertheless, you can dominate the look for outcomes with quality material and excellent backlinks. Blog backlinks are amid the most well-liked choices and auto-approve weblogs provide a major venue to encourage your internet site.

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